Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin, 2018, No.3, pp.104-122
UDC: 
614.2-053.2(571.1)(091)

State, local government and public organizations health protection activities in Western Siberian schools (in the late 19th and early 20th centuries)

Tatarnikova A. 1 ( Tobolsk,, Russian Federation)
1 Sector of Humanitarian Research, Tobolsk complex scientific station Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tobolsk, Russian Federation.
Abstract: 

Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of the historical experience of protecting students’ health in schools of Western Siberia in the context of the modernization of Russian society and related changes in the health protection policy. The aim of the study is to characterize health protection and health promotion activities of state and local authorities and non-governmental organizations in Western Siberian schools in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Materials and Methods. The historiosophical foundation of the research is the theory of traditional society modernization, as articulated in the 1950-1960-s by the representatives of the western sociology, political science and economic thought (P. Aron, J. Galbraith, P. Sorokin, etc.). Changes in government and societal approaches to students’ health protection is considered in close connection with the comprehensive long-term transition process from traditional to «modern» or industrial society. The evolution of the attitude to students’ health can be traced on the basis of the analysis of medical departments reports operating under the provincial government, as well as the data of medical and sanitary surveys of educational institutions in urban and rural areas, and the materials of the periodical press.
Results. This work investigates a wide range of previously unexplored aspects of state policy and societal attitude to schoolchildren' health in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This following conclusions are made: a manifestation of incipient society modernization in the region was the change in central and local authorities and non-governmental organizations attitude to schoolchildren's health problems. Health protection activities included annual students' medical and sanitary inspections, strengthening supervision of schools sanitary conditions, disinfection of school premises, the first attempts to provide students with hot meals, and promotion of basic hygiene skills. These measures had a positive effect on pupils' health saving behavior, contributed to the reduction of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases.
Conclusions. The author characterizes the state of schoolchildren’s health during the target period, analyzes the measures taken by the authorities and public organizations to maintain the health of the younger generation.

Keywords: 

Health-care schoolchildren; Western Siberia; Disease; Medical-sanitary control; School food; State authorities; Local government; Public organizations

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Date of the publication 30.06.2018